The long term experiment with amendments and mineral & organic fertilisation

Local identifier
Years operational
Studying the influence of limestone application and fertilisation on soil fertility, crop yields, soil properties, harvest quality and environmental impact.
Bifactorial experiment
Data Access Statement
Available to any researcher on request
Data license
Data policy
Yes (not online)
Agricultural Research and Development Station Livada
Experimental Research Station
Drd. Ursan Patrick
principal investigator
Principal Investigator-ARDS LIVADA
The Fertilizer Laboratory
Dr. Paul Kurtinecz
principal investigator
Principal Investigator-ARDS LIVADA
The Fertilizer Laboratory

Site: B5

Local code
Geographic location
47.864083, 23.087016
© OpenStreetMap contributors
130 Metres
Visits permitted?
Visiting arrangements
Visits are allowed, only notification of the principal investigator is required.
Soil type
Soil description
Loamy-clayey loamy soil, with tick solum and moderate by textural differentiation. More details about the soil are presented in the link below
Climatic type
temperate continental / mediterranean climate - Cfbx
Climate description
The Pannonian subprovince, which includes the plain area of ​​the ARS Livada territory, is under the influence of a temperate climate with a sub-Atlantic hue.
Climate properties
VariableTime periodValue (range)Units
Mean annual air temperature (1961-2022)9.9 (-2.8 – 19.9) degree Celsius
Mean annual precipitation (1961-2022)753.2 millimeter

Design period:

Design Type
-The establishment of the experiments was initiated in the autumn of 1961, by Dr Ioan Boeriu, an advocate of agricultural research in North-Western Transylvania and the manager of the Fertilisers and Amendments Laboratory. From September 1, 1974 until the end of 2022, the management of the trial was taken over by Dr. Paul Kurtinecz. Initially, on two parcels of both the Haplic Luvisol and Albic Luvisol there were created three levels of amendment with 0, 2.5 and 5 t limestone/ha, and 0, 5 and 10 t limestone/ha, respectively. -The stationary experiments with liming and fertilisers were established according to the method of subdivided plots, in a bifactorial manner. Initially, three levels of the amendment factor were created by applying 0; 2.5 and 5 t of limestone/ha in the case of Haplic Luvisol, and double doses in the case of Albic Luvisol. Consequently, in 1966, by subdividing the length of the replicate into three strips of eight m. each, there were created nine levels of amendment which offer a very wide range of practically testing such ameliorative measurements. -In these experiments, the „Fertilisation„ factor presents 8 levels and is of „Mangelversuch„ type, offering the possibility of successively testing the effectiveness of nutritional elements, a concept valid for the period in which the experiences were initiated and in a region where information was completely lacking regarding the effect of fertilisation. Regrettably, worldwide, there are relatively few stationary experiments with liming of acidic soils, and for the existent ones the „limestone„ factor does not present several gradual levels. -Fertilisation was carried out with ammonium nitrate, concentrated superphosphate, potassium salt 40%, semi-fermented farmyard manure. Liming used Bucium limestone and precipitated calcium carbonate from „Azomures„ . The crop rotation practiced in these experiments involved mostly cereals. At the end of the 70’s, the beginning of the 80’s, at the country level, the issue of liming acidic soils and fertilisation was considered sufficiently elucidated and this led to the abolition of stationary experiments with amendments and fertilisers located in several other research stations (Horodnic, Suceava; Husasaul de Tinca, Bihor; Albota, Arges, etc.). Considering the large prevalence of acidic soils in the northwest, at A.R.S. Livada it was deemed necessary to maintain these experiments, mainly for the continuous follow-up of limestone secondary effects. -The long term experiment uses progressive doses of mineral & organic fertilisers varying as well different doses of amendments.
Design description
The bifactorial experiment (of the 9A x 8B type) is divided into 4 replicates. Each replicate consists of 3 blocks, with 24 different plots. Overall, the experiment consists of 288 plots of 6 m x 7 m size.
Number of plots
Number of subplots
Number of replicates
Number of harvests per year
CropYears grown
Crop Rotation
  • 1
Factor name
Factor levels
fertilizer exposure
Mineral and organic fertilizer addition
Control (unlimed & unfertilised)  (0 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: -
nitrogen fertilizer exposure  (100 kg/ha)
Chemical form: ammonium nitrate
Phosphate fertiliser exposure  (70 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
Potassium fertiliser exposure  (60 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: potassium chloride
farmyard manure exposure  (20 tonnes per hectare)
Chemical form: -
liming exposure
The factor consist of different levels of amendment addition
control exposure (unlimed)  (0 kg/ha)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 1  (83,3 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 2  (166,7 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 3  (166,7 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 4  (208,3 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 5  (250 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 6  (333 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 7  (417 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Amendment rate 8  (667 kilogram per hectare)
Chemical form: limestone
Soil pHSoilThe pH value (KCl) oscilated in experiences between 4.7 and 8.3
Crop yieldNot specifiedannually
Soil and plant micro & macro elementsNot specified
Soil respiration, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescenceNot specified

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