The Swedish long-term soil fertility experiment, R3-9001, Borgeby (Örja)

Local identifier
R3-9001, M-4-2010, (earlier M-41957)
Years operational
1957—
Objective
To investigate if the long-term productivity of an agricultural soil can be increased by using mineral fertilizers. Focus is on the influence of the natural conditions of the site compared to the influence of management practices. What factors are the most important for long-term productivity: fertilization, crop rotation, or natural circumstances? In addition, the soils resilience against nutrient impoverishment and intensive crop production is tested.
Description
This experiment started in 1957 in Örja but the top soil was moved to Borgeby (around 3 km) in 2010. In 1957 the first long-term soil fertility experiments were established at different locations in the southernmost region of Sweden, Skåne. In 1963 and 1966 additional experiments were started in central Sweden. In 2021 nine soil fertility experiments remain active, located at Fjärdingslöv, Orup, Borgeby and Ekebo in the southern region, and Bjertorp, Vreta Kloster, Högåsa, Kungsängen and Fors in the central region. In the experiments two cropping systems are tested, one representing a typical farm with livestock and one representing a typical farm with no animals, referred to as crop rotation I and II, respectively. Crop rotation I receives a combination of cattle manure and mineral fertilizers, and straw and plant residues is removed from the field. In crop rotation II only mineral fertilizers are used and straw and plant residues is left on the field after harvest. Both crop rotations receive four levels of nitrogen addition and four levels of PK addition. Crop samples are collected every year and topsoil samples every 4th year in the south region and every 6th year in the central region.
Data Access Statement
Available to any researcher on request
Data Access Notes
Contact information here https://www.slu.se/en/departments/soil-environment/research/soil-nutrient-cycling/slu-field-research-plant-nutrition/
Data license
Don't know
Data policy
Don't know
Organization
The Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences, SLU
research organisation
Person
Dr Sabina Braun
experiment manager
SLU
Soil and Environment

Site: Borgeby

Type
research farm
Local code
M-4-2010
Location
Lund
Sweden
Geographic location
55.7379, 13.0526
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Visits permitted?
Yes
Visiting arrangements
Contact soilnutrientcycling@slu.se or Hushållningssällskapet Skåne https://hushallningssallskapet.se/alla-sallskap/valj-sallskap/skane/kontakt-skane/

Design period:

Description
Two cropping systems are tested, one representing a typical farm with livestock and one representing a typical farm with no animals, referred to as crop rotation I and II, respectively. Crop rotation I receives a combination of cattle manure and mineral fertilizers, and straw and plant residues is removed from the field. In crop rotation II only mineral fertilizers are used and straw and plant residues is left on the field after harvest. Both crop rotations receive four levels of nitrogen addition and four levels of PK addition.
Design description
Four blocks, two with crop rotation I+manure+straw removed and two with crop rotation II+no manure+straw left on field. Blocks split into subplots with four levels of N addition and four levels of PK addition. P and K is linked, i.e. no P = no K etc. Total 64 plots.
Number of replicates
2
Crops
CropYears grown
sugar beet
winter wheat
grass clover leys
oats
spring barley
Crop Rotations
Crop rotation I, with livestock
  • 1
    spring barley
  • 2
    grass clover leys
  • 3
    winter wheat
  • 4
    sugar beet
Crop rotation II, no livestock
  • 1
    spring barley
  • 2
    oats
  • 3
    winter wheat
  • 4
    sugar beet
Factors
Factor name
Factor levels
nitrogen fertilizer exposure
N1  (0 )
N2  (50 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: annually
N3  (100 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: annually
N4  (150 kgN/ha)
Application frequency: annually
phosphate fertilizer exposure
Linked with K exposure
P0  (0 )
P replacement  (Replacement P )
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
"Replacement" means that the same amount of P that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
Replacement P plus low  (replacement + 15 kgP/ha)
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
Replacement P plus high  (replacement + 30 kg kgP/ha)
Chemical form: triple superphosphate
potassium fertilizer exposure
Linked with P exposure
K0  (0 )
Replacement K  (replacement )
Chemical form: potassium chloride
"Replacement" means that the same amount of K that is removed by harvest is returned during the following crop rotation.
Replacement K plus low  (replacement +40 kgK/ha)
Chemical form: potassium chloride
Replacement K plus high  (replacement + 80 kgK/ha)
Chemical form: potassium chloride
farmyard manure exposure
slurry  (25 t/ha)
Only in crop rotation I. Applied in autumn after harvest of winter wheat.
no manure
No manure in crop rotation II
crop residue management exposure
straw removed
In crop rotation I
straw left on field
In crop rotation II
crop rotation
Crop rotation I gets manure and straw is removed. Crop rotation II gets only mineral fertilizers and straw is left on field.

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